A large part of the United Nations expenditure is devoted to its core mission of peace and security, and this budget is assessed separately from the main organizational budget.  The peacekeeping budget for fiscal year 2015-2016 was $8.27 billion, supporting 82,318 troops stationed in 15 missions around the world.  United Nations peacekeeping missions are funded by assessments, according to a formula derived from the regular funding scale and including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent members of the Security Council, which must approve all peacekeeping operations. This surcharge is intended to compensate for the reduction in peacekeeping rates for less developed countries. The largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping financial operations during the period 2019-2021 are: the United States 27.89% China 15.21%, Japan 8.56%, Germany 6.09%, the United Kingdom 5.78%, France 5.61%, Italy 3.30% and the Russian Federation 3.04%.  At last year`s General Assembly, President Donald J. Trump delivered a speech in which he sharply criticized multilateralism, the cornerstone of the United Nations` international cooperation. “America will always choose independence and cooperation over global governance, control and domination,” he said. In 2017, Trump threatened to “completely destroy” North Korea if it threatened the United States or its allies.
After World War I, an international group developed the League of Nations to resolve disputes between countries. When World War II began, the initiative failed, but underscored the need for a new reformed organization that could promote world peace. Indonesia is the first and only nation in the history of the United Nations to withdraw its membership once after Malaysia was rejected as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council amid the conflict between the two countries in 1965.  President Sukarno later founded CONEFO as a rival to the United Nations. In September 1966, Suharto, as the de facto leader of the United Nations Assembly, announced that Indonesia had resumed its full membership in the UN. In its seventh decade, the United Nations is known throughout the world. But how many people know what it does or how it works? Or why did the institution do so, when this week nearly 200 heads of state and government attended the 74th anniversary of the meeting. Gathered from their Annual General Meeting, fought to keep the promise of its founders: to make the world a better and more peaceful place? After some successes and failures in the 1920s, the league proved ineffective in the 1930s. He failed to take action against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as he did in February 1933. Forty nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria, but Japan voted against and withdrew from the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria.
 He also failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, although he tried to talk to Benito Mussolini, but he used time to send an army to Africa. The league had a plan for Mussolini to take control of only part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the league and invaded Ethiopia. The Lega tried to impose sanctions on Italy, but Italy had already conquered Ethiopia and the Lega had failed.  After Italy conquered Ethiopia, Italy and other nations left the league. But everyone realized that it had failed, and they started rearming as soon as possible. Economic and Social Council: The Economic and Social Council issues policies and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues. It is composed of 54 members elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term. The main features of the UN apparatus, such as the veto privileges of certain nations in the Security Council, are often described as fundamentally undemocratic, unlike the UN mission, and as the main cause of inaction on genocide and crimes against humanity.   Changes in the nature of international relations have led to changes in the competences of the United Nations and its decision-making apparatus. Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War severely affected the security functions of the United Nations during the first 45 years of its existence. Complete decolonization after World War II in Africa, Asia and the Middle East increased the volume and nature of the political, economic and social problems facing the organization.
The end of the Cold War in 1991 attracted new attention and attracted the United Nations. In an increasingly volatile geopolitical climate, new challenges have been posed to established practices and functions, particularly in the areas of conflict resolution and humanitarian assistance. At the beginning of the 21st century. In the nineteenth century, the United Nations and its affiliated programmes and organizations struggled to address humanitarian crises and civil wars, unprecedented refugee flows, the devastation caused by the spread of AIDS, global financial disruption, international terrorism and disparities in wealth between the world`s richest and poorest peoples. The Council has not been able to defuse major conflicts, particularly those involving permanent members. More recently, its most egregious failure has been to address the nearly nine-year conflict in Syria, with Russia backing the government of President Bashar al-Assad and the United States, Britain and France supporting some opposition groups. After fierce negotiations, 50 nations have agreed on a charter that begins with the words “We, the peoples of the United Nations.” In 1948, the General Assembly adopted a Universal Declaration of Human Rights, drafted by a committee headed by American diplomat and activist Eleanor Roosevelt, which included French lawyer René Cassin. The document proclaims the basic civil, political and economic rights common to all, although its effectiveness in achieving these goals has been controversial since its elaboration.
 The Declaration serves as a “common reference for all peoples and nations” and not a legally binding document, but it has become the basis for two binding treaties, the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.  In practice, the UN is not able to take meaningful action against human rights violations without a Security Council resolution, although it does important work in investigating and reporting human rights violations.  The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council, with the permanent members having a veto. There are no specific criteria for the position, but over the years it has been accepted that the position will be held for one or two five-year terms.  The current secretary-general is António Guterres, who replaced Ban Ki-moon in 2017. Trusteeship Council: The Trusteeship Council was originally established to oversee the 11 Trust Territories that were placed under the administration of seven Member States. By 1994, all Territories had achieved self-government or independence, and the body had been suspended. In the same year, however, the Council decided to continue to meet occasionally rather than annually.
The UN has also been criticized for its perceived failures. In many cases, Member States have been reluctant to adopt or implement Security Council resolutions. Disagreements within the Security Council over military action and intervention are not considered appropriate to prevent the genocide in Bangladesh in 1971, the Cambodian genocide in the 1970s, and the genocide in Rwanda in 1994.  Similarly, UN inaction is accused of failing to prevent the 1995 Srebrenica massacre or complete 1992-93 peacekeeping operations during the Somali civil war.  UN peacekeepers have also been accused of rape of children, recruitment of prostitutes, and sexual abuse during various peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Liberia, present-day Sudan, Burundi, and Côte d`Ivoire.  Scientists have pointed to Nepal`s UN peacekeepers as a likely source of the 2010-2013 cholera outbreak in Haiti, which killed more than 8,000 Haitians after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti.  Over the years, the role of the United Nations has shifted from an organization focused on peace and security to one encompassing a wide range of global concerns. Today, the United Nations offers solutions to problems related to health, the environment, criminal justice, refugee dilemmas and more. With the spread of decolonization in the 1960s, members of the organization experienced an influx of newly independent nations.
In 1960 alone, 17 new states joined the UN, including 16 from Africa.  On October 25, 1971, the Communist People`s Republic of China received China`s seat on the Security Council on the mainland, but with the support of many Third World countries, instead of the Republic of China, which occupied Taiwan; The vote was widely seen as a sign of diminishing U.S. influence in the organization.  Third world countries organized themselves into the Group of 77 coalition under the leadership of Algeria, which briefly became a dominant power at the United Nations.  On 10. In November 1975, a bloc of the USSR and Third World countries adopted a resolution on the vigorous opposition of the United States and Israel, declaring Zionism racism; the resolution was repealed on 16 December 1991, shortly after the end of the cold war.   When the Charter came into force in October. . .